savoia-marchetti sm 79b

Before the invasion, there was a large force of torpedo aircraft: 7 Gruppi (groups), 41, 89, 104, 108, 130, 131 and 132nd equipped with dozens of aircraft, but this was nevertheless a weak force. [72] The wreck was largely intact, and still bore the initials of its Squadron. The Savoia-Marchetti S.M. [7], An evaluation of the SM.79 from a military perspective was conducted. Soon however, the Sparviero faced the Hawker Hurricane and the Fairey Fulmar, which was faster but still quite slow in relation to other escort fighters. From 1939 onwards, torpedoes were carried externally, as were larger bombs, with two hardpoints fitted under the inner wing. At the beginning of 1941 only around 40 SM.79s were still present in Libya, and by the end of 1941 only one operational squadron remained. The Sparviero had several advantages compared to British torpedo bombers, including a higher top speed and greater range. [7] It had originally been conceived as a fast monoplane transport aircraft, capable of accommodating up to eight passengers and of being used in air racing (such as the London-Melbourne race). The following data shows the decline in effectiveness of the SM.79 as a torpedo bomber: During July 1944, several SM.79s were transferred to Eleusis/Athens base to carry out sorties in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Wing went operational on 1 May 1936 with the SM.79 successfully completing torpedo launches from a target distance of 5 km (3.1 mi) in August 1936. Cruise speed was 373 km/h (232 mph) at 5,000 m (16,000 ft), but the best cruise speed was 259 km/h (161 mph) (60% power). Its wooden structure was light enough to allow it to stay afloat for up to half an hour in case of water landing, giving the crew ample time to escape, and the front engine offered some protection from anti aircraft fire. Two Gladiators were scrambled, one piloted by Flt Lt George Burges. From autumn 1940, SM.79s were used against the Kingdom of Greece, then Yugoslavia. MM.28-25 (again with a crew of 17) was lost when another SM.79 damaged by anti-aircraft guns collided with it on 23 March. The other eight from 52ª Squadriglia could only take off 40 minutes later, while the first seven circled over the airfield. [26], The 12° Stormo (Wing) was the first to be equipped with the SM.79, starting in early 1936, and was involved in the initial evaluation of the bomber, which continued throughout 1936. Instrumentation in the central panel included oil and fuel gauges, altimeters for low and high altitude (1,000 and 8,000 m or 3,300 and 26,200 ft), clock, airspeed and vertical speed indicator, gyroscope, compass, artificial horizon, turn and bank indicator, rev counters and throttles. The SM.79 project began in 1934 and was conceived as a fast, eight-passenger transport capable of being used in air-racing (the London-Melbourne race). Although damaged, the tanker SS Ohio, a key part of the convoy, was towed into Grand Harbour to deliver the vital fuel on 15 August 1942 to enable Malta to continue functioning as an important Allied base, a major Allied strategic success. These included the heavy cruiser HMS Kent on 18 September 1940, the light cruiser HMS Liverpool twice, on 8 October 1940 and on 14 June 1942, the light cruiser HMS Glasgow on 7 December 1940, the light cruiser HMS Manchester on 23 July 1941, the light cruiser HMS Phoebe on 27 August 1941, the battleship HMS Nelson on 23 September 1941, the light cruiser HMS Arethusa on 18 November 1942, and the aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable on 16 July 1943. Of the 12 aircraft that departed from Istres on 5 June 1944, 10 reached their target (according to other sources, ten SM.79s took off on 4 June and nine reached the target[51]). [33], A Sparviero had the dubious honour of being the first aircraft to fall on Maltese soil during the Second World War: on 10 July 1940, an estimated twenty SM.79s without escort arrived to bomb the dockyard, Manoel Island, Tarxien and Żabbar. [57], During 1937, the Romanian government decided to place an order for 24 twin-engined SM.79B bombers, fitted with 746 kW (1,000 hp) Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major 14K radial engines. The last success of this squadron was at Souda Bay, Crete, when Buscaglia damaged another cruiser, HMS Glasgow, despite the anti-torpedo netting surrounding the ship, sending it out of commission for nine months while repairs were made. Almost all the available machines were sent to the Raggruppamento Aerosiluranti, but of the 44 aircraft, only a third were considered flight-worthy by 9 July 1943. El Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Sparviero (" gavilán " en italiano) fue el bombardero medio italiano más importante de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. The maximum ferry range, when flown at its optimal cruise speed, was unconfirmed; in order to reach Addis Ababa with non-stop flights from Libya, SM.79s were frequently modified in order to carry more fuel, and were able to fly over 2,000 km (1,200 mi). With full power available and flaps set for takeoff, the SM.79 could be airborne within 300 m (980 ft) before quickly climbing to an altitude of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) within the space of 3 minutes, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in 6 minutes 30 seconds, 3,000 m (9,800 ft) in 9 minutes 34 seconds, 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in 13 minutes 2 seconds, and 5,000 m (16,000 ft) in 17 minutes 43 seconds. They were equipped with a total of around 350 SM.79s, including those used in training squadrons.[29]. Even these modifications could not provide sufficient range to achieve the necessary distance that the mission required, and so all weapons except one were removed, one member of crew was left behind, and the fuel load was increased to 5,000 L (1,320 US gal). [7] It featured very sleek contours and continuous panoramic windows, true to its original intended role as a passenger aircraft. The following day, a formation of Republic P-47 Thunderbolt destroyed 14 "Sparvieri" on Lonate Pozzolo airfield. The other two crew members were never found; the finding of an additional clock on Romanini's body indicated that at least another crewman had accompanied him through the desert, but had died earlier on the march.[74]. Hervieux, Pierre. [54] However, the radio controls malfunctioned and with nothing to guide it the SM.79 drone cruised along until it ran out of fuel and crashed into Mount Khenchela on the Algerian mainland. SM.79B Twin-engine export version powered by the less reliable Fiat A.80 engines and with a glazed nose for improved bomb-aiming. [42] The year opened with attacks against Allied shipping off North Africa, during which they were unable to accomplish many successes. Production of new SM.79s continued to fall behind and up to the end of July only 37 SM.79s and 39 SM.84s were delivered. The aircraft continued in service until a British bomb struck them, setting off a torpedo and a "chain reaction" which destroyed them all. Curtiss P-40s, Lockheed P-38 Lightnings, Grumman Martlets and Supermarine Spitfires served in the Mediterranean to hinder Sparviero operations during the day. [11], During October 1936, production of the SM.79 formally commenced. [48] During one of the missions on Anzio, Comandante Carlo Faggioni was killed. One torpedo hit HMS Kent, damaging the heavy cruiser to the extent that the ship remained under repair until September 1941. The torpedo bomber variant was much more unstable and harder to control than the civilian version (and much less precise than its successor, the SM.81). Among the men famous for serving in Sparvieri were: Favourable reports of the type's reliability and performance during the Spanish Civil War led to the 1938 Kingdom of Yugoslavia's order of 45 aircraft generally similar to the SM.79-I variant, designated the SM.79K. The same period saw the five Iraqi SM.79Bs and the 45 SM.79Ks in Yugoslavian service unable to mount a successful defence in either Iraq or Yugoslavia. Because of this, in the later versions which were used exclusively for torpedo-bombing tasks, the ventral weapon and nacelle were removed. [37] These few aircraft were later reinforced by others which were modified to fly at an economical speed over Sudan for the hazardous ferry flight of over 2,000 km (1,200 mi). Each gun except for the forward one was equipped with 500 rounds. The Axis' fortunes started to decline steadily during 1942. The only two serviceable SM.79s left flew the last operational mission of the group and sank a 5,000-ton ship in the Adriatic off the Dalmatian coast.[53]. They were mostly SM.79-III type. Though often derided, as were most Italian arms in World War ll, the SM79 Sparviero (Hawk) was a fine and robust bomber that unfailingly operated in the most difficult conditions with great reliability. By 4 November 1936, there were only six SM.79s with enough crew to fly them operating in Spain. During July, the Allies invaded Sicily with an immense fleet. Two accidents highlight the deficiencies in range of the Sparvieros. By the end of 1939, there were 388 Sparvieros in Italian service, spread across 11 wings that were either partially or totally equipped with this aircraft. The aircraft has a pronounced hump on the upper forward fuselage housing the dorsal gunner’s position. Piloted by Adriano Bacula, the prototype flew for the first time on 28 September 1934. (Bombardamento Tattico), with Gruppi XXVII° and XXVIII°, under the command of Tenente Colonnello Riccardo Seidl, was sent to Spain. During September 1943, the last offensive operation involving the type was conducted, and resulted in the damaging of the LST 417, on 7 September 1943.[48]. Overall, these numbers meant little in the war, and almost no other results were recorded by Italian bombers. Throughout the conflict, SM.79s were credited with the sinking of a number of Allied warships, including the destroyer HMS Fearless on 23 July 1941, the destroyer HMS Bedouin on 15 June 1942, the destroyer HMAS Nestor on 16 June 1942, the destroyer HMS Foresight on 13 August 1942, the sloop HMS Ibis on 10 November 1942, the corvette HMS Marigold on 9 December 1942, the anti-aircraft ship HMS Pozarica on 29 January 1943. Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 Posted on July 25, 2018 by MSW It was the most important Italian bomber of World War II, this tough three-engined aircraft established a reputation that contrasted with most Italian weapons of the day, and it was flown with courage and skill. [20] The first of many Sparvieros shot down over Malta fell on 22 June. Savoia-Marchetti S.M.79B. [17] The fuselage used a welded tubular steel frame structure, which was covered with duralumin on the forward section, a mixture of duralumin and plywood across the upper fuselage surface, and fabric for all of the other exterior surfaces. A group of five SM.79CSs went on to enter the Paris-Damascus–Istres race, where I-CUPA, I-FILU and I-BIMU took the first three positions, while the other two were placed sixth and seventh, the latter of which was heavily damaged in Damascus. [12] Speeds attained were around 430 km/h (270 mph) at 4,250 m (13,940 ft), with a relatively low practical ceiling of 6,500 m (21,300 ft). General Valle, in an attempt to answer some of the criticisms about the ability of the aircraft to operate at night, took off from Guidonia and bombed Barcelona, a journey of six hours and 15 minutes. The British offensive in December hit the Regia Aeronautica hard and many wings (a total of nine by May 1941) were phased out because of losses caused by enemy aircraft and ground fire. També es va destacar el seu ús com a torpediner en el Mediterrani. On this occasion, the aircraft proved it had a useful range (around 1,000 km/620 mi with eight 100 kg (220 lb) bombs, for a total gross weight of around 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). In response to the military interest, the company decided to construct a militarised second prototype. "On Three Fronts: Romania's Aircraft Industry During World War Two". The flight of 52ª Sq lasted for 4 hours and 45 mins but 18ª Sq flew for 5h and 15 mins, without any payload, at an average speed of only 210 km/h.

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