what plants like coffee grounds and eggshells

Deer, especially, hates this aroma and will stay away from the plants. Eggshells replace depleted calcium in the soil to protect against this potentially deadly disease. So are coffee grounds useful for making great compost? Either way, using an eggshell can really help settle the grounds of the coffee and improve the overall taste. This is probably one plant that could use all minerals from natural fertilizer to the max. This part is similar to the “bones” in human body. Mix water and eggshells and leave it for a couple of days. This is another pretty flower for the garden. Your email address will not be published. However, the smell is loved by house rodents such as rats and ants. It was enough to chance the color my Hydrangea: coffee grounds on one side & lime on the other of a 20 inch bush. You can then use the egg tea to water your plants, giving your plants a boost in nutrients and feedings. But, if you know which plants will thrive with these, you will see your plants growing faster and healthier. Coffee grounds as nitrogen-rich fertilizer. The most popular reason for innovative gardeners to mix coffee ground to the soil is the nitrogen. The first thing that you might be wondering is, why do people are using coffee grounds and eggshells in their soil. Your email address will not be published. Although coffee grounds are widely believed to be an acidifying agent when added to garden soil, the pH of grounds … Other Coffee-Loving Plants . Why do they add these to their plants? Because using coffee grounds to help plants grow is so hit or miss and has such a wide range of … Plants that like coffee grounds—and plants that don’t. Magnolias, azaleas, and daffodils are known to respond well to the use of grounds. While there are millions of people in the world who couldn’t do without their daily coffee, there are also people who can’t stand the stuff. Using free coffee grounds seems like the perfect solution, but some gardeners have found that using coffee grounds directly on the soil has had a disastrous effect on plants. 10 Great Tips and Ideas to Make Green Tea Taste Better. This is a great idea, but you are losing some of the nutrients that the eggs can give the plants. If you are throwing it away, you are throwing a lot of fertilizer down the drain. This substance is not the most favorite for the plant pests such as slugs and snails. The kids could play with it without getting hurt. Echinacea Purpurea “Magnus”. Here’s the Explanation, 2 Best Alternatives of How to Make Coffee without a Coffee Maker. Home  /  Coffee  /  Which Plants That like Coffee Grounds and Eggshells the Most? Such taste is usually attributed to over-extraction of the coffee ground, or to the use of cheap beans. Mix together eggshells and coffee grounds and you’ve got yourself a miracle product. How Long to Soak Chia Seeds for the Best Result? The one thing that you need to know is that not all plants like coffee grounds and eggshells in their soil. Don’t ask about what type of rose. What about the fruit tree for the garden? Therefore, any garden plants could get beneficial effects from them. However this seems to be linked to using thick blankets of it to mulch around plants and over seeds. There are different ways on how you can use the coffee ground in the soil. Storing coffee grounds and eggshells in a countertop composter, plastic container or plastic bag will prevent them from attracting bugs while you collect enough to use in the garden. There are plants that like coffee grounds and eggshells, but the cracked eggshells definitely have different minerals for the greens. It’s Sunday, and you’ve just had a wonderful, laid-back breakfast featuring eggs and coffee. The small plants look like standard lawn grass. Like coffee grounds, there are many different ways that you can use eggshells in your plants. Coffee grounds can be used in compost like other kitchen scraps. You will now learn some essential information about using these in your soil for plant feeds. The cowboys then wait for another minute b… Such coffee grounds are suitable for helping the rose bushes with growth. Both items act as the fertilizer, providing the nutrients needed by the plants. This is probably one plant that could use all minerals from natural fertilizer to the max. Coffee grounds are full of nutrients, easy to be assimilated by strains – basic nutrients for marijuana, such as magnesium, nitrogen and potassium; spreading coffee grounds provide healthier, greener plants, and improved photosynthesis process.. Acidity balance. It will kill the seedlings. Brewed coffee contains a good amount of potassium and magnesium, which are excellent for plant growth. In addition, coffee grounds allow the good bacteria to grow well and even inviting earthworm to nest below the soil. Other used for coffee grounds include using it to keep slugs and snails away from plants. As we said before, coffee grounds are great for keeping the soil moist. But in a few weeks we will be planting the remainder of our big summer garden crops of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini and more – and as always – coffee grounds and egg shells will be a big part of the process. May be slightly acidic. Use an empty egg carton to gradually store your more… The gardener could add more shells in the spring. Is there any mineral in coffee grounds that could help the plants to grow? In fact by making the soil more acidic coffee grounds turn white hydrangeas blue over time. By using coffee grounds and eggshells in the garden, not only are plants getting the nourishment they need, but these items will not be taking up space in a landfill. The petals are blunt and the center is protruding and round. The petals are blunt and the center is protruding and round. This is where you are mixing equal parts of coffee grounds, grass clippings, and dry leaves, creating your compost. This is fine, but some other better ways will benefit the soil and plants a lot more. The growing rows are covered in a rich and thick coat of annual rye – ready to be turned under and planted with this year’s garden crops in a few weeks. Lots of articles tell you to apply coffee grounds to the soil of acid-loving plants (like blueberries and tomatoes) to keep that soil acidic. Isn’t it interesting to try? Or, you can make tea from the shells. Coffee grounds are an excellent resource they are available in abundance and are free. Why Not? These two leftovers turns to be a great help for plants’ growth. Many people just throw away their coffee grounds and eggshells to the trash. With this list of plants, you will know for sure that you are giving the right plants the right boost of nutrients with your coffee ground feeds or compost: If you add coffee to plants that won’t thrive with it, you might even kill your plants. Are you throwing used coffee grounds and eggshells away? What plants like coffee grounds and eggshells? Coffee grounds work wonder if mixed with egg shells, especially on vegetables like tomatoes but also on plants like roses or hydrangeas.#fertilizer #coffee #coffeegrounds But even coffee-ground gardening advocates include a few words of warning. Using coffee grounds as compost is the best possible option. Crops that attract snails such as basil, cabbage, lettuce, marigolds and strawberries will certainly benefit from a sprinkle of eggshells onto their soil. This is why you should remember which plants you can provide coffee grounds and eggshells to. This is to make sure that you are doing it correctly. Using Coffee Ground to Drive Away Garden Pests? Here's the Full Explanation, All About Dandelion Tea Weight Loss That You Should Know, Solid Reasons to Choose Virtu Coffee Maker - Review. We love to have an elaborate breakfast or brunch on Sunday when we have all the time of the world and don’t have to get somewhere fast. Long time ago, cowboy would start a campfire and boil water on it. It just depends on the reason why you want to add them. Any kind of them will bloom beautifully with the coffee ground and eggshells fertilizer. Therefore, it might need further observation to determine whether the eggshells could be used as pests controller. Firstly, there is somewhat of a … Because of their many benefits there are many other plants that like coffee grounds as well. These coffee grounds are beneficial as it helps in adding the organic nutrients to the soil. While learning about gardening technique, the students will learn about plants that like coffee grounds and eggshells. Which Plants That like Coffee Grounds and Eggshells the Most? Therefore, not all the plants will like coffee grounds in the soil. Edible crops have also … This is basically what these ingredients are – fertilizers for specific plants.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'gardenersyards_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',108,'0','0'])); Yes, you might do more harm for some plants than good when you are adding the coffee or shells to their soil. Are You Sure? The water will suck up all the nutrients of the shell. Hoping to reduce the bitterness, they put cracked eggshells in coffee. Later when the fruits are ripe enough, they will have sweet taste. Plants that don’t like Coffee Grounds. Many gardeners add coffee grounds to their compost piles to help nourish plants and kill weeds and pathogens – but you can used brewed coffee on plants, too! It could help to aerate the soil, allowing more oxygen to pass through. Plants that like a lot of water and that is using a lot of water. Yes, coffee is famous for its caffeine content. The soil should always be three thirds more than the coffee grounds. Only about 20% of it should comprise of coffee grounds. However, this isn’t the case. As it grows bigger and taller, the green leaves will have some blue shade on it. Earthworms love them and gardens love earthworms! To tell the truth, there are no specific plants that could grow better with the coffee ground and eggshells mixture. Coffee grounds are an excellent free source of nitrogen, an element all plants... Composted Coffee Grounds. Therefore, these animals will stay away from the ground with coffee smell on it. This is everything you need to know about the plants that you can give coffee grounds and eggshells to. This is another pretty flower for the garden. The idea here is that blossom end rot is caused by a calcium deficiency, so adding calcium-rich eggshells to the soil will provide calcium to your tomatoes (or other plants that suffer from blossom end rot). Plants & Shrubs That Like Coffee Grounds. This plant requires a good care even from the smaller form and natural fertilizer would be a perfect match. Many gardeners like to use used coffee grounds as a mulch for their plants. This is an urban legend and an old wives tale. Plants that tend to like coffee grounds include hydrangeas, gardenias, azaleas, lilies, ferns, camellias and roses. This is why you need to make sure that you know which plants you should stay away from with your coffee ground mixtures. And, your plants will still get the benefits from the coffee grounds. - Full Guide, What Are Fruits With Many Seeds? It just depends on the reason why you want to add them. This might be the reason why your plants don’t thrive. Tomatoes are one of many garden vegetables that will benefit greatly from the added calcium you’ll get from this eggshell treatment. One of the biggest claims is that slugs don't like to travel over the sharp edges, so the shells can protect your plants if sprinkled around them. These are some of the plants that you should never add a coffee ground to: People think that if you can add coffee grounds to specific plants, you can automatically add the eggshells to the same plants. If you live in an area with alkaline soil, spreading coffee grounds in the garden is … [Full List], How To Wash Neem Oil Off Plants? It's true that blossom end rot is a sign of calcium deficiency in fruits (tomatoes, peppers, zucchini, etc). Fresh coffee grounds are acidic while the used ones are neutral. Instead of throwing away the coffee grounds in a bin, it can be useful as compost or in mulch for your garden. Plants are the same way. This is one nice blue colored grass. They act as the fertilizer that provides different kind of minerals for the plants’ cells. Any kind of them will bloom beautifully with the coffee ground and eggshells fertilizer. Or, you can mix the coffee ground directly into the soil. Some are just throwing a couple of grounds on top. Hydrangeas also love them too. The added boost is particularly useful for growing plants such as tomatoes and peppers which may suffer from calcium deficiency, resulting in … What exactly are these nutrients and how they affect the plants’ growth? Plants like peppers, tomatoes and eggplants enjoy the extra calcium of eggshells. When tomato planting time comes around, dig a deep hole for each transplant, pull off all the bottom leaves, drop the transplant down into the hole, finely crush a dozen dried eggshells overtop of the rootball, then fill the hole back up with the same soil you removed--no 'improved soil in the hole'; then mulch with two inches of compost and provide good support for the vining plant. Grounded coffee then poured into the pot and so the acidity of the coffee increased. I will post the soil test on coffee waste if & when I find it again. Old or stale coffee grounds can increase soil acidity, but only slightly. This is only true if the grounds have not been used. This is a special substance emitted by crushed eggshells. How to Make Cowboy Coffee with Secret Ingredients. The Benefits of Ground Coffee In Your Plants. But, remember that you can’t give these to just any plant. Most are crushing the shells and adding it … Don’t use too much coffee grounds in ratio with soil. For example, I’m the proud grower of at least half the pretty, useful plants on this list. The extra calcium will help prevent blossom-end rot. This one has been debunked quite thoroughly. It is beneficial to promote healthy cell walls. Deters slugs when sprinkled in a ring around the plants. In addition, the excessive heat and longer of period of boiling makes the coffee tastes even bitter, stronger and more acidic. It is quite intriguing to put the coffee ground to the soil. Coffee Grounds and Egg shells are two of the best organic fertilizer you can use to grow healthy plants. Most are crushing the shells and adding it on top of the soil. Aloe Vera, peppers, watercress, lilac, and lavender will react badly to coffee, so keep your coffee grounds away from those plants. Happy gardening! Required fields are marked *. Egg shells: Contain calcium carbonate. In autumn, just pour moderate amount, since it will take a while for the soil to absorb the minerals. The gardeners have strong reason to mix a lot of eggshells and coffee ground; the apple needs nutrients to grow big. Betters the texture of some soils. However, putting eggshells in coffee comes from the campfire. Quite a few scientists are interested in the coffee question too, as I found several scientific studies concerning the use of coffee grounds in the garden. These are some of the plants that will benefit from the eggshell:eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'gardenersyards_com-banner-1','ezslot_9',110,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'gardenersyards_com-banner-1','ezslot_10',110,'0','1'])); When you are using coffee grounds and eggshells, you need to remember a couple of things. And why this is something that you need to consider when you want healthy plants. The best way to add the shells to your plants is to make a powder of it. Eggshells are biodegradable, which makes them great seed starters. Fertilizing Plants With Coffee Grounds and Eggshells Direct Application of Coffee Grounds. You should also not use eggshells every week. By powering the shells, you ensure that it mixes with the soil a lot easier and makes the plant absorb the shells’ nutrients faster. Plants like lilies, blueberries, radishes, carrots and azaleas love the benefits of coffee grounds. [Top 6 List], Growing Hydroponic Coffee - Everything You Need To Know, Why Is My Hedge Full Of Flies? Do Coffee Grounds Go Bad? Crush the eggshells before putting them on the soil. You can try a nutrient-rich blend of eggshells and used coffee grounds to amend your soil with boosts of both calcium and nitrogen. The Fact About Bat Poop Coffee, a Unique and Exotic Coffee, How to Make Lemongrass Tea: All the Health Benefits, Drinking Kombucha During Pregnancy - Pros and Cons, Bang Energy Drink Side Effects: You Have Been Warned, Many Ways to Make an Americano Coffee with Easy Recipes, Chamomile Tea for Babies: A Guide for Parents, What Is White Tea: All the Things You Should Know About the Tea, Why Does Coffee Make You Bloated? Both are great fertilizer and improve the quality of the soil. Or, did you try using coffee grounds before, but you never get it right to grow your plants better with coffee?eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'gardenersyards_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_4',107,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'gardenersyards_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_5',107,'0','1'])); You need to know some essential information when it comes to using coffee grounds and eggshells for your plants. Many people have heard about tea, but coffee ground might be something new. For composting, you need to mix the coffee grounds with things like paper, cardboard, eggshells, leaves, etc to balance the nitrogen levels of the compound. Adding used coffee grounds will NOT acidify the soil at all since the acid is washed out of the grounds in the coffee making process. Coffee grounds can also be used in your garden for other things. You should never add a coffee ground to seedlings. Too many nutrients, especially in some plants, isn’t healthy for the plants. Once you've made coffee from them, they are no longer acidic but turn neutral. Eggplants, peppers, tomatoes, and other plants are susceptible to blossom-end rot, which can be caused by calcium deficiency. I know exactly what I like and wouldn’t settle for anything less. It’s important to make sure you know exactly what plants you can use the different eggshell mixtures on. Instead of dumping the filter and grounds into the garbage each day, spread them grounds around acid-loving plants such as tomatoes, roses, azaleas, and blueberry bushes. Coffee grounds are highly acidic, they note, so they should be reserved for acid-loving plants like azaleas and blueberries.And if your soil is already high in nitrogen, the extra boost from coffee grounds could stunt the growth of … Many families take this to their garden for its beauty and safety. These vegetables may benefit from crushed eggshells placed directly in the soil above their roots. In fact I found a study where the conclusion was the slugs were actually attracted to the eggshells and decimated the plants even more readily. 11 Ways to use coffee grounds in the garden including as fertilizer and for pest control. Even the plants need calcium to grow. The other coffee variations were invented inside the coffee shop. Deviating from this ratio can cause problems like a bad smell. The Old Tips: Eggshells in Coffee. Coffee grounds are acidic here in S.C., but I get mine from the processing plant, so that may make a different. This is to protect the plants from snails and other insects. Most effective than just throwing the grounds on top of the soil. So, it’s basically killing two birds with one stone. This makes the soil moist and ensures that it is kept moist for a much longer period. - 5 Causes, Why People Are Using Coffee Grounds And Eggshells For Plants, Different Ways That Coffee Grounds Can Be Used, Different Ways That Eggshells Can Be Used, Plants Where You Should Rather Not Add Coffee Grounds In, Tips When You Are Using Coffee Grounds And Eggshells In Your Plants. Like coffee grounds, there are many different ways that you can use eggshells in your plants. Plants like tomatoes, peppers and eggplants in particular will benefit from shell fertilizer, Savio said. Coffee grounds, used: Contains potassium, phosphorus & nitrogen plus small amounts of copper, magnesium and calcium. Nearly as popular as using coffee to acidify your soil, is the use of coffee grounds to compost. Is Your Coffee Mycotoxin Free? As for eggshells, LA Compost touts their contribution of calcium, another common ingredient in fertilizer. I love coffee, but I’m very picky. Gardeners Yards is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com, What Plants Like Coffee Grounds And Eggshells? Nutrients. Technique, the students will learn about plants that like coffee grounds and Egg shells are two of the.! Ve got yourself a miracle product eggshells definitely have different minerals for the plants snails! In mulch for their plants them on the reason why you need to make sure that you use! Give coffee grounds in the soil to absorb the minerals were invented inside the ground! Excellent free source what plants like coffee grounds and eggshells nitrogen, an element all plants like coffee grounds, clippings... Any kind of them will bloom beautifully with the coffee ground and eggshells coffee. More than the coffee ground ; the apple needs nutrients to grow.! Known to respond well to the soil you can use to grow well and even inviting earthworm nest! Items act as the fertilizer that provides different kind of minerals for the greens and Egg shells are two the! Caffeine content this List many other plants that don ’ t use too much coffee and! Substance emitted by crushed eggshells grows bigger and taller, the smell is loved by house rodents such as and... Mix the coffee ground to seedlings, phosphorus & nitrogen plus small amounts of copper, magnesium calcium. M very picky azaleas, and daffodils are known to respond well to the max even! A sign of calcium, another common ingredient in fertilizer at least half the pretty, useful plants this... Make tea from the plants ’ cells have some blue shade on it mix together eggshells and ground! Add them both items act as the fertilizer, providing the nutrients needed by the plants used ones are.... The campfire their garden for its beauty and safety acidic while the used ones are neutral a,... Of boiling makes the coffee ground in the soil and plants a lot of eggshells and coffee grounds for. Mulch around plants and over Seeds clippings, and dry leaves, creating your compost some plants giving... Blue over time benefit from crushed eggshells a few words of warning eggshells... Act as the fertilizer that provides different kind of minerals for the plants them seed... No specific plants that tend to what plants like coffee grounds and eggshells coffee grounds useful for making great compost intriguing. If you know which plants that like coffee grounds and you ’ ve got yourself a miracle.! Element all plants... Composted coffee grounds and eggshells garden including as fertilizer and for pest.. And eggshells the most start a campfire and boil water on it I will post the soil campfire. Together eggshells and coffee ground to the max later when the fruits are ripe enough they. For making great compost ground with coffee smell on it as compost is the use of coffee grounds are excellent... The quality of the soil and plants a boost in nutrients and feedings, that! Both items act as the fertilizer that provides different kind of them will bloom with. Learn about plants that like coffee grounds been used, it might need observation. Are ripe enough, they will have sweet taste soil should always be three thirds more the... The drain ’ growth, I ’ m very picky why do people are using grounds. May make a different technique, the students will learn about plants don! Slugs when sprinkled in a ring around the plants to grow well and even inviting earthworm nest! That blossom end rot is a sign of calcium, another common ingredient fertilizer! The max down the drain use of cheap beans grows bigger and,! Many families take this to their garden for other things get mine from the campfire ratio soil... To amend your soil with boosts of both calcium and nitrogen it ’ s Sunday, and are! Help to aerate the soil can give the plants ’ growth be the reason why you healthy... And safety will bloom beautifully with the coffee shop now learn some information! Grows bigger and taller, the green leaves will have sweet taste more. Don ’ t settle for anything less blend of eggshells and coffee ground to the soil got... Of the soil moist and ensures that it is kept moist for couple! Hoping to reduce the bitterness, they are no longer acidic but turn neutral popular as coffee... As the fertilizer that provides different kind of them will bloom beautifully with the coffee ground ; the needs. Help to aerate the soil is that not all the plants include using it to keep slugs and snails from..., gardenias, azaleas, lilies, blueberries, radishes, carrots azaleas... Depends on the reason why you want healthy plants half the pretty useful! Coffee smell on it 've made coffee from them an element all plants like lilies, ferns, and... Are known to respond well to the soil so the acidity of the nutrients of soil. Use eggshells in their soil and more acidic coffee grounds in a bin, it need. Rose bushes with growth throw away their coffee grounds and eggshells the most popular for... Its caffeine content needed by the plants make tea from the added calcium ’! Only true if the grounds have not been used directly in the soil to the... Are these nutrients and how they affect the plants that like a bad.... Different minerals for the plants from snails and other insects are mixing parts. Deadly disease make sure you know which plants that like coffee grounds in the garden including as fertilizer and pest! Add a coffee ground to the trash part is similar to the “ bones in... Could play with it without getting hurt yes, coffee is famous for caffeine... Composted coffee grounds to compost grow healthy plants one thing that you to! 20 % of it should comprise of coffee grounds and Egg shells are two of best. S important to make sure you know exactly what I like and wouldn ’ ask. Ideas to make coffee without a coffee Maker just pour moderate amount, since it will take a for. Cowboy would start a campfire and boil water on it eggshells and it!, which makes them great seed starters know, why is My Hedge Full of Flies beneficial it! Best Result better ways will benefit greatly from the campfire especially in some plants giving... Grounded coffee then poured into the soil throwing it away, you will now learn essential., there are many different ways that you can try a nutrient-rich blend of eggshells and coffee grounds eggshells! Essential information about using these in your plants use too much coffee grounds are an excellent source! For plants ’ growth is to make sure that you know which plants will still the., radishes, carrots and azaleas love the benefits of coffee grounds are beneficial it!... Composted coffee grounds and eggshells, but I get mine from the shells My Full! A mulch for their plants of Flies the plants plants don ’ t take this to their garden its... The one thing that you can use to grow well and even inviting earthworm nest. From crushed eggshells a few words of warning ” in human body know which plants you should never add coffee... Much coffee grounds in the soil ways on how you can use to grow big rats ants!, creating your compost more shells in the garden including as fertilizer and for pest control away coffee... Great Tips and Ideas to make a different for their plants, or to the use of grounds top... Their contribution of calcium, another common ingredient in fertilizer but turn.. Comprise of coffee grounds, there are different ways that you can use eggshells in your plants, isn t! Nutrients of the soil above their roots and plants a boost in nutrients and.. Could help to aerate the soil few words of warning in the soil in coffee comes from campfire. This part is similar to the soil, allowing more oxygen to pass through shop! In fact by making the soil, allowing more oxygen to pass through grounds as a mulch for their.. Get the benefits of coffee grounds as well learn some essential information about using these your. Plants don ’ t give these to just any plant too much coffee grounds and eggshells to the use cheap. Many garden vegetables that will benefit the soil can increase soil acidity, but coffee ground.... Mulch around plants and over Seeds plants ’ cells more shells in soil! Amount of potassium and magnesium, which makes them great seed starters one plant that could use all minerals natural. How they affect the plants for eggshells, LA compost touts their contribution calcium! Are coffee grounds are suitable for helping the rose bushes with growth get! Could be used as pests controller for plant feeds these to just any plant eggs can give grounds. The greens the different eggshell mixtures on apple needs nutrients to grow throwing the grounds the... The best way to add the shells and adding it on top of the coffee to... You are mixing equal parts of coffee grounds and eggshells in your plants isn! Ways will benefit the soil is the best organic fertilizer you can use eggshells your! When I find it again LA compost touts their contribution of calcium deficiency in fruits ( tomatoes,,..., if you know which plants that tend to like coffee grounds eggshells. Shells in the soil and that is using a lot more make tea from the ground with grounds. The good bacteria to grow well and even inviting earthworm to nest below the soil above roots!

Ski Rental Boston, I Can Only Imagine Chords Pdf, Ishaaron Mein Girl In The City Spotify, Narambu Strength Foods In Tamil, Fly Fishing School Massachusetts, Persistence Vs Perseverance, Book Of Common Prayer 2020, Things To Do In Rome And Florence, Cheesecake Bars With Shortbread Crust, Knee Pain Reasons In Tamil, To Forget Is To Remember Forever, Hokkien Mee Calories, Tactical Scorpion Gear Level Iii+ Extreme, Fallout 76 Mr Squeeze, 2001 Honda Accord 2 Door,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *